We can’t tell you for certain, but probably not. The answer depends on the law in your state regarding Medicaid estate recovery.
If your state does not seek recovery from non-probate property, the state will not be able to collect from the policy. Even if your state has expanded estate recovery law to include non-probate assets, the state still might not be able to track life insurance policies. Just make sure that the beneficiaries your mother wants are named on the policy.
A local elder law attorney could give you a definite answer. Find an attorney near you.